Michael Witzel

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Michael Witzel
Gimė: 1943 m. liepos 18 d. (75 metai)
Svebodzinas, Lenkija
Veikla: indologas, kalbininkas
Sritis: vedų religija, Vedų sanskritas, senovės Indijos istorija
Organizacijos: Harvardo universitetas
Pareigos: profesorius

Michaelis Vicelis (Michael Witzel; g. 1943 m. liepos 18 d.) – Vokietijos (vėliau JAV) indologas, sanskritologas, kalbininkas. Harvardo universiteto sanskrito profesorius (nuo 1987 m.), leidinio Harvard Oriental Series redaktorius.

Biografija[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

Gimė Švibuse, dab. Lenkijoje. 19651971 m. Vokietijoje studijavo indologiją (pas Paulį Tymę, Karlą Hofmaną ir kt.), 19721973 m. mokėsi Nepale pas mimansos adeptą Džununathą Panditą. 19721978 m. Katmandu mieste vadovavo Nepalo tyrimų centrui ir rankraščių saugojimo programai. 1972 m. dėstė Tiubingene, 19781986 m. Leidene, o nuo 1986 m. – Harvarde. Kijoto, Paryžiaus, Tokijo universitetų lankantysis dėstytojas.

Veikla[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

Svarbiausios Michaelio Vicelio tyrimų sritys yra vedų religija (raida, mokyklos), vedų sanskritas (tarmės), senovės Indijos istorija, substratas Vedų sanskrite, Indijos kalbinė priešistorė. Vicelis teigė, kad Indo slėnio civilizacijos sukurtas Harapos raštas yra nekalbinio pagrindo. Taip pat iškėlė hipotezę, kad iki indoarijų atsikraustymo Indijon, pagrindiniai Pietų Azijos gyventojai buvo austroaziečiai, kalbėję „para-mundų kalba“ (susijusi su dab. mundų kalbomis). Taip pat teigė tiek Avestos, tiek vedų sanskrito kalbose esant bendro substrato iš Vidurinės Azijos.

Michaelis Vicelis pasižymėjo kova prieš šiuolaikinius Indijos nacionalistus, propagandos tikslais iškraipančius vedų religiją.

Bibliografija[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

Vedos ir ankstyvoji Indijos istorija[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

  • Michael Witzel, On the localisation of Vedic texts and schools. // India and the Ancient world. History, Trade and Culture before A.D. 650. P.H.L. Eggermont Jubilee Volume, ed. by G. Pollet. Leuven: Department Oriëntalistiek 1987, P. 173–213
  • Michael Witzel, Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, 1989, P. 97-265.
  • Michael Witzel, Early Indian History: Linguistic and Textual Parameters // Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity. The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia, ed. G. Erdosy, Berlin/New York (de Gruyter) 1995, P. 85-125.
  • Michael Witzel, Rgvedic history: poets, chieftains and politics, // Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity. The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia, ed. G. Erdosy, Berlin/New York (de Gruyter) 1995, P. 307–352.
  • Michael Witzel, „Early Sanskritization. Origins and development of the Kuru State“. B. Kölver (ed.), Recht, Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. The state, the Law, and Administration in Classical India. München : R. Oldenbourg 1997, P. 27-52.
  • Michael Witzel."The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools: The Social and Political Milieu. " // Inside the Texts, Beyond the Texts. New Approaches to the Study of the Vedas. Harvard Oriental Series. Opera Minora, vol. 2. Cambridge 1997, 257–345

Vėlyvesnio laikmečio istorija[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

  • Michael Witzel, Das Alte Indien [History of Old India]. München: C.H. Beck 2003
  • Michael Witzel, Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change. // Olivelle, P. (ed.) Between the Empires. Society in India between 300 BCE and 400 CE. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2006: 457–499
  • Michael Witzel, The Vedas and the Epics: Some Comparative Notes on Persons, Lineages, Geography, and Grammar. // P. Koskikallio (ed.) Epics, Khilas, and Puranas. Continuities and Ruptures. Proceedings of the Third Dubrovnik International Conference on the Sanskrit Epics and Puranas. September 2002. Zagreb: Croatian Academy of Sciences and the Arts 2005: 21-80
  • Michael Witzel, On Indian historical writing: The case of the Vamsavalis. Journal of the Japanese Association for South Asian Studies, No. 2, 1990, p. 1-57
  • Michael Witzel, Kashmiri Brahmins. // The Valley of Kashmir. The making and unmaking of a composite culture? Edited by Aparna Rao, with a foreword and introductory essay by T.N.Madan. New Delhi: Manohar 2008: 37-93

Kalbotyra[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

  • Michael Witzel, Aryan and non-Aryan Names in Vedic India. Data for the linguistic situation, c. 1900–500 B.C. in : J. Bronkhorst & M. Deshpande (eds.), Aryans and Non-Non-Aryans, Evidence, Interpretation and Ideology. Cambridge (Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora 3). 1999, 337–404
  • Michael Witzel, "Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic), EJVS Vol. 5,1, Aug. 1999, 1-67
  • Michael Witzel, Linguistic Evidence for Cultural Exchange in Prehistoric Western Central Asia. Philadelphia: Sino-Platonic Papers 129, 2003.
  • Michael Witzel, Loan words in western Central Asia. Indicators of substrate populations, migrations, and trade relations. // V. Mair (ed.) Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press 2006: 158–190
  • Michael Witzel, „The Rgvedic Religious System and its Central Asian and Hindukush Antecedents“. // A. Griffiths & J.E.M. Houben (eds.). The Vedas: Texts, Language and Ritual. Groningen: Forsten 2004: 581–636
  • Michael Witzel, South Asian agricultural vocabulary. // T. Osada (ed.), Proceedings of the Pre-Symposium of RHIN and 7th ESCA Harvard-Kyoto Round Table. Published by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RHIN), Kyoto, Japan 2006: 96-120
  • Michael Witzel, Central Asian Roots and Acculturation in South Asia. Linguistic and Archaeological Evidence from Western Central Asia, the Hindukush and Northwestern South Asia for Early Indo-Aryan Language and Religion. // T. Osada (ed.) Linguistics, Archaeology and the Human Past. Kyoto : Indus Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature 2004, 87-211

Tekstologiniai tyrimai. Religija[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

  • Michael Witzel, Katha Âranyaka. Critical edition with a translation into German and an introduction. Cambridge: Harvard Oriental Series 65. 2004
  • Michael Witzel, Medieval Veda Tradition as Reflected in Nepalese Manuscripts. Journal of the Nepal Research Centre, 12, 2001, 255–299
  • Michael Witzel, How to enter the Vedic mind? Strategies in Translating a Brahmana text. Translating, Translations, Translators From India to the West. (Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora, 1) Cambridge : Harvard Oriental Series 1996 [How to enter the Vedic mind? Strategies in Translating a Brahmana text. Translating, Translations, Translators From India to the West. (Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora, 1) Cambridge : Harvard Oriental Series 1996]
  • Michael Witzel, Macrocosm, Mesocosm, and Microcosm. The persistent nature of 'Hindu' beliefs and symbolical forms . in S. Mittal (ed.), IJHS Symposium on Robert Levy’s MESOCOSM, International Journal of Hindu Studies, 1.3 Dec. 1998, 501-53
  • Michael Witzel, The Kashmiri Brahmins. // Studies on the Nilamata-Purana, ed. by Y. Ikari, Kyoto 1995, pp. 211– 268 [The Kashmiri Brahmins. // Studies on the Nilamata-Purana, ed. by Y. Ikari, Kyoto 1995, pp. 211– 268]
  • Michael Witzel, Meaningful ritual. Structure, development and interpretation of the Tantric Agnihotra ritual of Nepal. Ritual, State and History in South Asia. Essays in honour of J.C. Heesterman, ed. A.W. van den Hoek, D.H.A. Kolff, M.S.Oort, Leiden 1992, 774–827
  • The Vedas and the Epics: Some Comparative Notes on Persons, Lineages, Geography, and Grammar. // P. Koskikallio (ed.) Epics, Khilas, and Puranas. Continuities and Ruptures. Proceedings of the Third Dubrovnik International Conference on the Sanskrit Epics and Puranas. September 2002. Zagreb: Croatian Academy of Sciences and the Arts 2005: 21-80

Lyginamoji mitologija[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

  • Michael Witzel, "Comparison and Reconstruction : Language and Mythology. " Mother Tongue VI, 2001, 45- 62
  • Michael Witzel, "Vala and Iwato. The Myth of the Hidden Sun in India, Japan and beyond. " EJVS 12-1, 2005, 1-69
  • Michael Witzel, "Creation myths. " // T. Osada (ed.). Proceedings of the Pre-Symposium of RHIN and 7th ESCA Harvard-Kyoto Round Table. Published by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RHIN), Kyoto, Japan 2006: 101–135
  • Out of Africa: the Journey of the Oldest Tales of Humankind. // Generalized Science of Humanity Series, Vol. I. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa 2006: 21-65.
  • Myths and Consequences. Review of Stefan Arvidsson, Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and Science, Chicago University Press 2006. Science, vol. 317, 28 September 2007, 1868–1869.
  • Witzel, Michael, 2008. “Slaying the dragon across Eurasia”. // Bengtson, John D. (ed.) In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory. Essays in the four fields of anthropology. In honor of Harold Crane Fleming. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamin’s Publishing Company 2008: 263–286.

Indo slėnio raštas[redaguoti | redaguoti vikitekstą]

  • M. Witzel and S. Farmer, „Horseplay in Harappa“ Frontline, Oct. 10, 2000.
  • Steve Farmer, Richard Sproat, and Michael Witzel, „The Collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis: The Myth of a Literate Harappan Civilization“, EVJS, vol. 11 (2004), issue 2 (Dec)
  • Michael Witzel, Indocentrism: Autochthonous visions of ancient India. // The Indo-Aryan controversy: evidence and inference in Indian history / edited by Edwin F. Bryant and Laurie L. Patton. London & New York : Routledge, 2005: 341–404
  • Michael Witzel, Ein Fremdling im Rgveda. Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) 31, No. 1-2 (2003), 107–185
  • Michael Witzel, Rama’s Realm: Indocentric Rewritings of Early South Asian Archaeology and History. // Archaeological Fantasies. How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public, ed. by G. G. Fagan. London/New York: Routledge 2006:203-232
  • Hindutva View of History. Rewriting Textsbook in India and the United States. (with K. Visvesvaran, Nandini Majrekar, Dipta Bhog, and Uma Chakravarti). Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. 10th Anniversary edition. Winter/Spring 2009, 101–112