Senkaku salos

Straipsnis iš Vikipedijos, laisvosios enciklopedijos.
Peršokti į: navigaciją, paiešką
Uocuridžima kairėje, Kitakodžima ir Minamikodžima dešinėje.

Senkaku salos (jap. 尖閣諸島 = Senkaku-shotō, kiti variantai: 尖閣群島 Senkaku-guntō[1] ir 尖閣列島 Senkaku-rettō[2]), taip pat žinomos kaip Diaoju salos (kin. 钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿, pinyin: Diàoyúdǎo jí qí fùshǔ dǎoyǔ; taip pat supapr. kin. 钓鱼岛) Kinijoje ar Tiaojutai salos (kin. 釣魚台列嶼, pinyin: Diàoyútái liè yǔ) Taivane[3], taip pat dar Viršūnės salos, yra negyvenamų salų grupė Rytų Kinijos jūroje, kurias valdo Japonija. Jos yra į rytus nuo Kinijos, šiaurės rytus – nuo Taivano ir į vakarus nuo Okinavos.

Kai 1968 m. buvo atrasta, kad netoli salų jūroje gali būti naftos rezervų,[4][5][6][7][8] į Senkaku salas pretenzijas pareiškė Kinija ir Taivanas, tačiau 1971 m. JAV salas perdavė Japonijai. Kinija teigia, kad atrado ir valdė salas nuo XIV a. Japonija valdė salas nuo 1895 m. iki Antro pasaulinio karo pabaigos, 1945–1972 m. salas valdė amerikiečiai, kol kartu su Okinava grąžino Japonijai.[9]

Senkaku salos yra Japonijos diplomatinių ginčų su Kinija ir Taivanu objektas. Abi kinų vyriausybės sutinka, kad salos priklauso Taivanui, tiksliau Toučengo miestui Jilano provincijoje. Japonija oficialiai nepripažįsta Taivano kaip atskiros valstybės[3] ir teigia, kad Senkaku salos priklauso Išigakio miestui Okinavos prefektūroje, tad ji nepripažįsta Taivano ir Kinijos pretenzijų į salas. Japonijos vyriausybė neleido Išigakiui plėtoti salų.

Geografija[taisyti | redaguoti kodą]

Diaoyutai senkaku detail.png
Senkaku salos
Nr. Japoniškas pavadinimas Kiniškas pavadinimas Koordinatės Plotas (km2) Aukščiausias taškas (m)
1 Uocurišima (魚釣島)[10] Diaoju Dao (釣魚島) 25°46′N 123°31′E / 25.767°N 123.517°E / 25.767; 123.517 4,32 383
2 Taišoto (大正島)[11] Čivei Ju (赤尾嶼) 25°55′N 124°34′E / 25.917°N 124.567°E / 25.917; 124.567 0,0609 75
3 Kubašima (久場島)[12] Huangvei Ju (黃尾嶼) 25°56′N 123°41′E / 25.933°N 123.683°E / 25.933; 123.683 1,08 117
4 Kitakodžima (北小島)[13] Bei Siaodao (北小島) 25°45′N 123°36′E / 25.75°N 123.6°E / 25.75; 123.6 0,3267 135
5 Minamikodžima (南小島)[14] Nan Siaodao (南小島) 25°45′N 123°36′E / 25.75°N 123.6°E / 25.75; 123.6 0,4592 149
6 Okinokitaiva (沖ノ北岩)[15] Da Bei Siaodao (北岩) 25°49′N 123°36′E / 25.817°N 123.6°E / 25.817; 123.6 0,0183 -
7 Okinominamiiva (沖ノ南岩)[16] Da Nan Siaodao (大南小島/南岩) 25°47′N 123°37′E / 25.783°N 123.617°E / 25.783; 123.617 0,0048 -
8 Tobise (飛瀬?)[17] Fei Dziao Jan (飛礁岩/飛岩) 25°45′N 123°33′E / 25.75°N 123.55°E / 25.75; 123.55 0,0008 -

Išnašos[taisyti | redaguoti kodą]

  1. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Senkaku-guntō, Japan. Nuoroda tikrinta 20, 2010-09-20.
  2. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Senkaku-rettō, Japan. Nuoroda tikrinta 20, 2010-09-20.
  3. 3,0 3,1 WantChinaTimes.com (2012-07-08). "Former New Taipei councilor explains PRC flag controversy." WantChinaTimes.com. Nuoroda tikrinta 2012-07-21.
  4. Lee, Seokwoo. Territorial Disputes among Japan, China and Taiwan concerning the Senkaku Islands (Boundary & Territory Briefing Vol.3 No.7). IBRU. “ The question of the disputed Senkaku Islands remained relatively dormant throughout the 1950s and 1960s, probably because these small uninhabited islands held little interest for the three claimants. The Senkaku Islands issue was not raised until the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (hereinafter 'ECAFE') of the United Nations Economic and Social Council suggested the possible existence of large hydrocarbon deposit in the waters off the Senkaku Islands. ... This development prompted vehement statements and counter-statements among the claimants.
  5. Pan, Junwu (2009). Toward a New Framework for Peaceful Settlement of China's Territorial and Boundary Disputes. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. “Obviously, primarily regional interests in oil and gas resources that may lie under the seas drive the two major disputes. The Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands issue did not re-surface until 1969 when the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East of the United Nations Economic and Social Council reported that the continental shelf of the East China "might contain one of the most prolific oil and gas reservoirs of the world, possibly comparing favourably with the Persian Gulf." Then both China and Japan had high expectations that there might be large hydrocarbon deposits in the waters off the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. The Law of the Sea at that time emphasized the theory of natural prolongation in determining continental shelf jurisdiction. Ownership of the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands would permit the owner to a large area of the continental shelf that may have rich sources of gas and oil. Such a dispute is obviously related to the awakening interest by the world's states in developing offshore energy resources to meet the demand of their economies.
  6. Takamine, Tsukasa (2012). Japan’s Development Aid to China, Volume 200: The Long-running Foreign Policy of Engagement. Routledge. “The islands had temporarily come under American control after the Second World War, but the sovereignty over the islands, was handed over to Japan in 1972 with the reversion of Okinawa.However, the PRC and Taiwan governments both made a territorial claim to the Senkaku Islands, soon after the United Nation Economic Commission issued in 1969 a report suggesting considerable reserve of submarine oil and gas resources around the islands.
  7. Drifte, Reinhard (2012). Japan's Security Relations with China Since 1989: From Balancing to Bandwagoning?. Routledge. “The dispute surfaced with the publication of a seismic survey report under the auspices of the UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECSFE) in 1968, which mentioned the possibility of huge oil and gas reserves in the area; this was confirmed by a Japanese report in 1969. Greg Austin mentions that Beijing started its claim to the Senkaku Islands for the first time in 1970, after Japanese government protested to the government in Taiwan about its allocation of oil concessions in the East China Sea, including the area of the Senkaku Islands.
  8. Lee, Seokwoo. Territorial Disputes among Japan, China and Taiwan concerning the Senkaku Islands (Boundary & Territory Briefing Vol.3 No.7). IBRU, 10–11. “"For a long time following the entry into force of the San Francisco Peace Treaty China/Taiwan raised no objection to the fact that the Senkaku Islands were included in the area placed under US administration in accordance with the provisions of Article of the treaty, and USCAP No. 27. In fact, neither China nor Taiwan had taken up the question of sovereignty over the islands until the latter half of 1970 when evidence relating to the existence of oil resources deposited in the East China Sea surfaced. All this clearly indicates that China/Taiwan had not regarded the Senkaku Islands as a part of Taiwan. Thus, for Japan, none of the alleged historical, geographical and geological arguments set forth by China/Taiwan are acceptable as valid under international law to substantiate China's territorial claim over the Senkaku Islands."”
  9. Lee, Seokwoo. (2002). Territorial Disputes Among Japan, China and Taiwan Concerning the Senkaku Islands, pp. 10–13.page=10
  10. Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI), 魚釣島 (Uotsuri Jima).
  11. GSI, 大正島 (Taishō Jima).
  12. GSI, 久場島 (Kuba Jima).
  13. Google Maps, 北小島 (Kita Kojima); GSI, 北小島 (Kita Kojima).
  14. Google Maps, 南小島 (Minami Kojima)
  15. GSI, 沖ノ北岩 (Okino Kitaiwa).
  16. GSI, 沖ノ南岩 (Okino Minami-iwa).
  17. GSI, 飛瀬 (Tobise).